Abstract: Current studies of map symbols mainly concentrate on the basic visual variables such as color, shape and size, which are commonly used in two dimensional maps. Recent technical advances and the ubiquitous use of smart devices have made three- dimensional (3D) maps (e.g., Google Maps and AutoNavi) increasingly popular. However, 3D visual variables, such as field of view (FOV) and viewing angle (VA) which play fundamental roles in visual information processing of 3D maps and spatial scenes, have been rarely investigated. This paper leverages eye tracking technology to explore the influence of such 3D visual variables on the interpretation of vertical, horizontal, angle and shape information in 3D maps. Specifically, we have recorded forty participants’eye movements in four tasks by varying the FOV and VA values. Participants’performances were analyzed by the quantitative metrics of effectiveness and efficiency. Statistical tests (two- tailed t- tests or Mann-Whitney U tests) were applied to each metric to test the significance of differences between two groups. Results show that FOV can significantly affect not only the effectiveness of interpreting the vertical and shape information perception, but also the efficiency of interpreting the angular information. Meanwhile, FOV has no significant influence on the efficiency of interpreting the vertical and shape information, the effectiveness and the efficiency of interpreting the horizontal information, and the effectiveness of interpreting the angular information of 3D maps. VA has no significant influence on the perception of horizontal, vertical or angular information. But it affects the perception of shape significantly. Furthermore, FOV and VA have interactive effects resulting in the difference of interpreting the angular and shape information giving the marginal significance. The results can provide implications to design 3D maps with higher usability and can be applied to improve the user interaction in 3D environments.
Cite this paper: 刘兵, 董卫华, 王彦文, 张宁旭. 视场角与观察角度对三维地图视觉信息加工的影响研究[J]. 地球信息科学学报 , 2015, 17 (12): 1490- 1496. [LIU Bing, DONG Weihua, WANG Yanwen, ZHANG Ningxu. The Influence of FOV and Viewing Angle on the Visual Information Processing of 3D Maps[J]. Journal of Geo-information Science , 2015, 17 (12): 1490- 1496.] (in Chinese) [Link to the publisher]