Abstract: An understanding of guidance, which means guiding attention, and constancy, meaning that an area can be perceived for what it is despite environmental changes, of the visual variables related to three-dimensional (3D) symbols is essential to ensure rapid and consistent human perception in 3D visualization. Previous studies have focused on the guidance and constancy of visual variables related to two-dimensional (2D) symbols, but these aspects are not well documented for 3D symbols. In this study, we used eye tracking to analyze the visual guidance from shapes, hues and sizes, and the visual constancy that is related to the shape, color saturation and size of 3D symbols in different locations. Thirty-six subjects (24 females and 12 males) participated in the study. The results indicate that hue and shape provide a high level of visual guidance, whereas guidance from size, a variable that predominantly guides attention in 2D visualization, is much more limited in 3D visualization. Additionally, constancy of shape and saturation are perceived with relatively high accuracy, whereas constancy of size is perceived with only low accuracy. These first empirical studies are intended to pave the way for a more comprehensive user understanding of 3D visualization design.
Cite this paper:
Liu, B.; Dong, W.; Meng, L. Using Eye Tracking to Explore the Guidance and Constancy of Visual Variables in 3D Visualization. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6, 274. doi: 10.3390/ijgi6090274
Cite this paper: Dong, W., Lan, J., Liang, S., Yao, W. and Zhan, Z. 2017. Selection of LiDAR geometric features with adaptive neighborhood size for urban land cover classification. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 60, 99-110. DOI: 10.1016/j.jag.2017.04.003
Abstract: The frequency and intensity of extreme heat wave events have increased in the past several decades and are likely to continue to increase in the future under the influence of human-induced climate change. Exposure refers to people, property, systems, or other elements present in hazard zones that are thereby subject to potential losses. Exposure to extreme heat and changes therein are not just determined by climate changes but also population changes. Here we analyze output for three scenarios of greenhouse gas emissions and socio-economic growth to estimate future exposure change taking account of both climate and population factors. We find that for the higher emission scenario (RCP8.5-SSP3), the global exposure increases nearly 30-fold by 2100. The average exposure for Africa is over 118 times greater than it has been historically, while the exposure for Europe increases by only a factor of four. Importantly, in the absence of climate change, exposure is reduced by 75–95% globally and across all geographic regions, as compared with exposure under the high emission scenario. Under lower emission scenarios RCP4.5-SSP2 and RCP2.6-SSP1, the global exposure is reduced by 65% and 85% respectively, highlighting the efficacy of mitigation efforts in reducing exposure to extreme heat.
继续阅读“Global and regional changes in exposure to extreme heat and the relative contributions of climate and population change”
Abstract: 3D representations in applications that provide self-localization and orientation in wayfinding have become increasingly popular in recent years because of technical advances in the field. However, human factors have been largely ignored while designing 3D representations in support of pedestrian navigation. This exploratory study aims to explore gender effects on using 3D maps for spatial orientation. We designed a 3D map that combines salient 3D landmarks and 2D layouts, and evaluated gender differences in their performance during direction-pointing tasks by administrating an eye tracking experiment. The results indicate there was no significant overall gender difference on performance and visual attention. However, we observed that males using the 3D map paid more attention to landmarks in the environment and performed better than when using the conventional 2D map, whereas female performance did not show any significant difference between the two types of map usage. We also observed contrary gender differences in visual attention on landmarks between the 3D and 2D maps. While males fixated longer on landmarks than females when using the 3D map, females paid more visual attention to landmarks than males when using the 2D map. In addition, verbal protocols showed that males had more confidence while make decisions. These empirical results can be helpful in the design of map-based wayfinding enhancement tools.
Cite this paper: Liao H, Dong W. An Exploratory Study Investigating Gender Effects on Using 3D Maps for Spatial Orientation in Wayfinding. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information. 2017; 6(3):60. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijgi6030060
Abstract: Nowadays, studies of factors influencing geographical spatial orientation ability mainly concentrate on gender whereas relationships of field cognitive style and spatial terminology with spatial orientation ability have rarely been studied. This study used eye tracking technology to explore the influences of the three individual variables on spatial orientation ability. 86 people participated in the experiments with an average age of 21 (SD=2.67). 继续阅读“Study on the Influence of Field Cognitive Style, Gender and Spatial Terminology on Geographical Spatial Orientation Ability: based on Experiments in Virtual Space”
Abstract: Despite the now-ubiquitous two-dimensional (2D) maps, photorealistic three-dimensional (3D) representations of cities (e.g., Google Earth) have gained much attention by scientists and public users as another option. However, there is no consistent evidence on the influences of 3D photorealism on pedestrian navigation. Whether 3D photorealism can communicate cartographic information for navigation with higher effectiveness and efficiency and lower cognitive workload compared to the traditional symbolic 2D maps remains unknown. 继续阅读“Eye tracking to explore the impacts of photorealistic 3d representations in pedestrian navigation performance”
Abstract: Despite the now-ubiquitous two-dimensional (2D) electronic maps, three-dimensional (3D) globe viewers, or 3D geo-browsers such as Google Earth and NASA World Wind have gained much attention. However, the effect of such interactive 3D geo-browsers on spatial knowledge acquisition and decision making is not well known. This study aims to explore the potential benefits of using interactive 3D geo-browsers in three processes of pedestrian navigation (self-localization, spatial knowledge acquisition, and decision making) in digital environments. 继续阅读“Exploring Differences of Visual Attention in Pedestrian Navigation when using 2D Maps and 3D Geo-browsers”
Abstract: Current studies of map symbols mainly concentrate on the basic visual variables such as color, shape and size, which are commonly used in two dimensional maps. Recent technical advances and the ubiquitous use of smart devices have made three- dimensional (3D) maps (e.g., Google Maps and AutoNavi) increasingly popular. However, 3D visual variables, such as field of view (FOV) and viewing angle (VA) which play fundamental roles in visual information processing of 3D maps and spatial scenes, have been rarely investigated. 继续阅读“The Influence of FOV and Viewing Angle on the Visual Information Processing of 3D Maps”